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Of all India’s states, Bihar is the one most intimately linked to the Buddha’s life, resulting in a trail of pilgrimages which have come to be known as the Buddhist circuit. The very name Bihar is derived from the world ’vihara’, which means Buddhist monastery. The Buddhist trail begins at the capital city, Patna, where a noteworthy museum contains a collection of Hindu and Buddhist sculptures. To the south of Patna is Nalanda which translates as ’the place that confers the lotus’ (of spiritual knowledge). A monastic university flourished here from the 5th to the 11th century. Rajgir, ‘the royal palace’, was the venue for the first Buddhist Council. The Buddha spent five years at Rajgir after having attained enlightenment, and many of the remains at Rajgir commemorate various incidents. Bodhgaya is the spot where Lord Buddha attained enlightenment, with the Mahabodhi Temple marking the precise location. Bihar’s Buddhist circuit has modest back-up facilities by way of accommodation, international dining and surface transport.


Patna once called Pataliputra the capital of Bihar, is among the world's oldest capital cities with unbroken history of many centuries as imperial metropolis. A very fertile arched stretch of land along the bank of the Ganga, the history and heritage of modern day Patna go back well over two millennia. It was Ajatshatru the Magadha king who first built a small fort in Pataligram on the bank of the Ganga in 6th century BC, which later blossomed into the ancient glory still to be seen in the neighbouring archaeological sites at Kumrahar. Bhiknapahari, Agamkuan, Bulandi Bagh
and Kankar Bagh. Pataliputra dominated the political fortunes of the whole of north India between 6th century BC and 5th century AD, a fact established by archaeological excavations. After the decline of the Mughals, the British too found Patna a convenient regional capital and built a modern extension to this ancient city and called it Bankipore. It was in Gandhi Maidan in this area that Mahatma Gandhi held his prayer meetings.

Altitude: 53 metres. Temperature (degree C): Summer- Max. 43, Min. 21. Winter - Max. 20, Min. 6. Rainfall: 120 cms. Clothing: Summer- Cottons, Winter- Heavy Woolens. Best Season: October to March.

Places Of Interest:
Kumrahar, Golghar, Har Mandir Takht, Martyrs’ memorial, Pathar ki Masjid, Sher Shah Suri Masjid, Khuda Baksh Oriental Library, Patna museum, Jalan museum, Sadaqat Ashram, Maner, Padri ki Haveli, Biological Park, Patna Yoga Vidyalaya, Quila House (Museum), Laxmi Narayan Temple, Pathar-Ki-Masjid, Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park, Rajendra Museum, Gandhi Museum.

Maner- 29 kms, Sasaram- 148 kms, Sonepur- 25 kms, Vaishali- 56 kms, Nalanda- 90 kms, Rajgir- 102 kms, Gaya- 174 kms, Bodhgaya- 179 kms.

Reach -
By Air: Connected with Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, Lucknow, Ranchi.
By Rail: Connected to Bombay, Calcutta, Guwahati, Ranchi, Varanasi.
By Road: Nalanda- 90 kms, Rajgir- 102 kms, Pawapuri- 90 kms, Gaya- 172 kms, Bodhgaya- 179 kms, Raxaul- 210 kms, Ranchi- 335 kms, Muzzafarpur- 72 kms, Sasaram- 152 kms, Vaishali- 56 kms, Calcutta- 653 kms, Delhi- 997 kms.


Vaishali today is a small village known for its historical past. The epic Ramayana tells the story of the heroic King Vishal who ruled here. Historians maintain that one of the world's first democratic republics with an elected assembly of representatives flourished here in the 6th century. Vaishali, on the left bank of the Gandak river, is spiritually supreme : Lord Buddha visited this place frequently and at Kolhua, close by, preached his last sermon. One of the famous lion pillars have been erected here by Emperor Ashoka. A hundred years after the
Mahaparinirvana of the Buddha - Vaishali hosted the second great Buddhist council. Jainism, too, has its origins in Vaishali, for in 527 B.C., Lord Mahavir was born here and lived in Vaishali till he was 22. Vaishali is then twice blessed and remains an important pilgrim centre for both Buddhists and Jains and other religions also.

Altitude: 52 metres. Temperature: (Max./Min.) Summer 44 Deg C/21 Deg C. Winter 23 Deg C/6 Deg C. Rainfall: 120 cms. Best Season: October to March.

Places Of Interest:
Ashoka Pillar at Kolhua, Buddha Stupa I, Buddha Stupa II, Raja Vishal Ka Ghar, Coronation Tank, Museum, Bawan Pokhar Temple and Harikatora Temple, Miranji Ka Durgah, Kundupur.

The Jain Prakrit Institute offers a place of study for researchers interested in Jainology an Prakrit, one of the spoken languages of Northern India in ancient times.

Reach -
By Air: Nearest airport is Patna, connected to Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, Ranchi and Lucknow.
By Rail: Nearest railhead is Hajipur.
By Road: Patna- 55 kms, Muzaffarpur- 36 kms and Hajipur- 35 kms.

Baidyanath Dham (Deoghar)

Baidyanath Dham situated in the Santhal Parganas of Bihar, is a very important pilgrim Centre. It's famous for the Hindus for the temple of Shiva-Baidyanath and the place is a popular holiday Centre.

Temperature (deg C): Summer- Max 36.9, Min 23. Winter - Max 27.7, Min 7.4. Best Season: October to February.

Places Of Interest & Excursions:
Baidyanath Temple, Nandan Pahar, Naulakha Mandir, Satsang Ashram, Tapovan, Basakinath Temple, Harila Joria, Trikut, Bihar State Handloom Emporium, Santhal Parganas Gramodyog Samittee, Santhal Parganas Khadi Gramodyog Bhavan, Balanand Ashram Yogashala, Karnibagh.

Reach -
By Air: Nearest Railway Station is Baidyanath Dham (Deoghar) which is a terminal station of a 7 kms branch line originating from Jasidih Jn.
By Rail: Calcutta- 373 kms, Giridih- 112 kms, Patna- 281 kms, Dumka- 67 kms, Madhupur- 57 kms, Shimultala- 53 kms.


Bihar has some of the most sacred Buddhist and Hindu shrines. Gaya is one of the most important pilgrimage places for the Hindus. It is believed that a Hindu will reach heaven if his last rites are offered under the celebrated ’Akshayabat’ or immortal banyan tree, standing in the yard of Vishnupad temple. Believed to be built on the footsteps of Vishnu, the grand temple was renovated by Ahalyabai, queen of Indore.
Excursions: Brahma, Deo, Barabar caves, Pawapuri, Parasnath hill, Call of the hills, Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Netarhat, Palamau, Jamshedpur, Damodar Valley, Dhanbad, Bhagalpur, Monghyr.

Reach - Gaya is an important railway junction.



Bodhgaya is one of the sacred places for the Buddhists as well as for the Hindus. Here under the Bodhi Tree, Gautama attained supreme knowledge to become Budhha, the `Enlighted One'. The Buddha attained enlightenment in Bodhgaya, under the Bodhi tree which still stands in the temple premises. The magnificent Mahabodhi temple in Bodhgaya is an architectural amalgamation of many centuries cultures and many heritages that came to pay their homage here. The temple definitely has architecture of the Gupta and later ages, inscriptions describing visits of pilgrims from Sri Lanka, Myanmar and China between 7th and 10th century AD.

Altitude: 113 metres. Climate (deg c): Summer- Max.47, Min.28. Winter- Max.28, Min.4. Rainfall: 186 cms ( Mid. June to Mid. September ). Best Season: October to March.

Places Of Interest:
Mahabodhi Temple, Animeshlocan Chaiyata, Mohanta's Monastery, Ratnagar, Archaeological Museum, Tibetan Monastery, Thai Temple & Monastery, International Buddhist House & Japanese Temple, Buddhist Monastery of Bhutan, The Burmese Temple, The Chinese Temple & Monastery.

Dungeshwari- 12 kms, Muchalinda Lake- 3 kms, Gaya- 12 kms, Majadha University- 3.2 kms.

Reach -
By Air: Nearest airport is Gaya- 12 kms. Patna is connected to Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, Ranchi & Lucknow.
By Rail: The nearest railhead is Gaya- 12 kms.
By Road: Gaya- 12 kms, Nalanda- 62 kms, Rajgir- 46 kms, Patna- 152 kms, Varanasi- 215 kms, Calcutta- 482 kms.


Founded in the 5th century A.D. Nalanda is known as the ancient seat of learning. World's most ancient University lies in ruins which is 62 kms from Bodhgaya and 90 kms south of Patna. Emperor Ashoka built many monasteries, temples and Viharas here. Hiuen Tsang stayed here in 7th century and has left detailed description of the excellence of education and purity of monastic life practiced here. In this first residential international university of the world, 2,000 teachers and 10,000 students from all over the Buddhist world lived and studied here. The Gupta kings

patronised these monasteries, built in old Kushan architectural style, in a row of cells around a courtyard. Ashoka and Harshavardhana were some of its most celebrated patrons. An international Centre for Buddhist Studies was established here in 1951. Nearby is Bihar Sharif, where an annual urs is celebrated at the Dargah or tomb of Malik Ibrahim Baya. Baragaon, The Sun temple is famous for Chhath puja.

Altitude: 67 metres. Temperature (deg C): Summer- Max. 37.8, Min. 17.8. Winter- Max.27.8, Min.10.6.

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